Yoshihiro Kawaoka


Department of Pathobiological Sciences
Office: 230

Yoshihiro Kawaoka

Titles and Education

  1. Professor of Virology
  2. BS, 1978, Hokkaido University, Japan (Veterinary Medicine)
  3. DVM, 1978, The Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery, Japan
  4. MS, 1980, Hokkaido University, Japan
  5. PhD, 1983, Hokkaido University, Japan


Influenza virus - molecular mechanism of interspecies transmission of the virus leading to influenza pandemics in humans; molecular pathogenesis of influenza in poultry and mammals. Ebola virus - role of viral proteins in pathogenesis and viral replication.

Make a gift in support of research to develop Ebola vaccines and antiviral treatments.


Veterinary Virology - This course, taught in semester 3, provides background information in basic virology, as well as a clinically-oriented review of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of the major viral diseases of animals.

Recent Publications

  1. Hatta M, Gao P, Halfmann P, Kawaoka Y. Molecular basis for high virulence of Hong Kong H5N1 influenza A viruses, Science 298:1840-1842, 2001.
  2. Schultz-Cherry S, Dybdahl-Sissoko N, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y, Hinshaw VS. Influenza Virus NS1 Protein Induces Apoptosis in Cultured Cells. J Virol 2001 75: 7875-7881.
  3. Kobasa D, Wells K, KawaokaY. Amino Acids Responsible for the Absolute Sialidase Activity of the Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase: Relationship to Growth in Duck Intestine. J Virol (in press).
  4. Goto H, Wells K, Takada A, Kawaoka Y. Plasminogen-binding activity of neuraminidase determines the pathogenicity of influenza A virus, J Virol 75:9297-9301, 2001.
  5. Watanabe T, Watanabe S, Ito H, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Influenza A virus can undergo multiple cycles of replication without m2 ion channel activity. J Virol 75:5656-5662, 2001.
  6. Jasenosky LD, Neumann G, Lukashevich I, Kawaoka Y. Ebola virus vp40-induced particle formation and association with the lipid bilayer. J Virol 75:5205-5214, 2001.
  7. Ito T, Goto H, Yamamoto E, Tanaka H, Takeuchi M, Kuwayama M, Kawaoka Y, Otsuki K. Generation of a Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus From an Avirulent Field Isolate by Passaging in Chickens. J Virol 75:4439-4443, 2001.
  8. Takada A, Watanabe S, Okazaki K, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Infectivity-enhancing antibodies to Ebola virus glycoprotein. J Virol Mar;75(5):2324-30, 2001.
  9. Hughes MT, McGregor M, Suzuki T, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y. Adaptation of influenza A viruses to cells expressing low levels of sialic acid leads to loss of neuraminidase activity. J Virol Apr;75(8):3766-70, 2001.
  10. Mase M, Imada T, Sanada Y, Etoh M, Sanada Y, Tsukamoto K, Kawaoka Y, Yamaguchi S. Imported parakeets harbor H9N2 influenza A viruses that are genetically closely related to those transmitted to humans in Hong Kong. J Virol Apr;75(7):3490-4, 2001.
  11. Ito H, Watanabe S, Takada A, Kawaoka Y. Ebola Virus Glycoprotein: Proteolytic Processing, Acylation, Cell Tropism, and Detection of Neutralizing Antibodies. J Virol Feb 1;75(3):1576-1580, 2001.
  12. Ito T, Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Takada A, Horimoto T, Wells K, Kida H, Otsuki K, Kiso M, Ishida H, Kawaoka Y. Recognition of N-glycolylneuraminic acid linked to galactose by the alpha2,3 linkage is associated with intestinal replication of influenza A virus in ducks. J Virol 74(19):9300-5, 2000.
  13. Neumann G, Hughes MT, Kawaoka Y. Influenza A virus NS2 protein mediates vRNP nuclear export through NES-independent interaction with hCRM1 EMBO J 19:6751-6758, 2000.
  14. Watanabe S, Takada A, Watanabe T, Ito H, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Functional importance of the coiled-coil of the Ebola virus glycoprotein. J Virol 74:10194-10201, 2000.
  15. Takada A, Watanabe S, Ito H, Okazaki K, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Downregulation of ƒÀ1 integrins by Ebola virus glycoprotein: Implication for virus entry. Virology 278:20-26, 2000
  16. Matrosovich M, Tuzikov A, Bovin N, Gambaryan A, Klimov A, Cox N, Castrucci M, Donatelli I, Kawaoka Y. Alterations of receptor-binding properties of H1, H2 and H3 avian influenza virus hemagglutinins upon introduction into mammals. J Virol 74:8502-8512, 2000.
  17. Chen D, Endres RL, Erickson CA , Weis KF, McGregor MW, Kawaoka Y, Payne LG. Epidermal immunization by a needle-free powder delivery technology: Immunogenicity of influenza vaccine and protection in mice. Nature Medicine 6:1187-1190, 2000.
  18. Suzuki Y, Ito T, Suzuki T, Holland Jr, RE, Chambers TM, Kiso M, Ishida H, Kawaoka Y. Sialic acid species as a determinant of the host range of influenza A viruses. J Virol 74:11825-31, 2000.
  19. Hatta M, Asano Y, Masunaga K, Ito T, Okazaki K, Toyoda T, Kawaoka Y, Ishihama A, Kida H Epitope mapping of the influenza A virus RNA polymerase PA using monoclonal antibodies. Arch Virol 2000;145(5):957-64
  20. Mitnaul LJ, Matrosovich MN, Castrucci MR, Tuzikov AB, Bovin NV, Kobasa D, Kawaoka Y. Balanced Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Activities Are Critical for Efficient Replication of Influenza A Virus. J Virol 74:6015-6020 2000
  21. Hoffmann E, Neumann G, Kawaoka Y, Hobom G, Webster RG. A DNA transfection system for generation of influenza A virus from eight plasmids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000
  22. Hughes MT, Matrosovich M, Rodgers ME, McGregor M, Kawaoka Y. Influenza A viruses lacking sialidase activity can undergo multiple cycles of replication in cell culture, eggs, or mice. J Virol 74:5206-12 2000
  23. Neumann G, Watanabe T, Kawaoka Y. Plasmid-driven formation of influenza virus-like particles. J Virol 74:547-51, 2000.
  24. Hoffmann E, Neumann G, Hobom G, Webster RG, Kawaoka Y. "Ambisense" approach for the generation of influenza A virus: vRNA and mRNA synthesis from one template. Virology 267:310-317, 2000.
  25. Kodihalli S, Goto H, Kobasa DL, Krauss S, Kawaoka Y, Webster RG. DNA vaccine encoding hemagglutinin provides protective immunity against H5N1 influenza virus infection in mice. J Virol 73:2094-8, 1999.
  26. Matrosovich M, Zhou N, Kawaoka Y, Webster R. The surface glycoproteins of H5 influenza viruses isolated from humans, chickens, and wild aquatic birds have distinguishable properties. J Virol 73:1146-55, 1999.
  27. Gao P, Watanabe S, Ito T, Goto H, Wells K, McGregor M, Cooley AJ, Kawaoka Y. Biological heterogeneity, including systemic replication in mice, of H5N1 influenza A virus isolates from humans in Hong Kong. J Virol 73:3184-9, 1999.
  28. Neumann G, Watanabe T, Ito H, Watanabe S, Goto H, Gao P, Hughes M, Perez DR, Donis R, Hoffmann E, Hobom G, Kawaoka Y. Generation of influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:9345-9450, 1999.
  29. Kobasa D, Kodihalli S, Luo M, Castrucci MR, Donatelli I, Suzuki Y, Suzuki T, Kawaoka Y. Amino Acid Residues Contributing to the Substrate Specificity of the Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase. J Virol 73:6743-51, 1999.
  30. Ito H, Watanabe S, Sanchez A, Whitt MA, Kawaoka Y. Mutational analysis of the putative fusion domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein. J Virol 73:8907-12, 1999.
  31. Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Ohira M, Takakuwa H, Yasuda J, Kida H, Otsuki K. Replacement of internal protein genes, with the exception of the matrix, in equine 1 viruses by equine 2 influenza virus genes during evolution in nature. J Vet Med Sci 61:987-989 1999.
  32. Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Nomura A, Otsuki K. Receptor specificity of influenza A viruses from sea mammals correlates with lung sialyloligosaccharides in these animals. J Vet Med Sci 61:955-958, 1999.
  33. Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Kameda C, Yasuda J, Kida H, Otsuki K. Differences in receptor specificity between Newcastle disease viruses originating from chickens and waterfowl. J Vet Med Sci 61:951-953, 1999.
  34. Masuda H, Suzuki T, Sugiyama Y, Horiike G, Murakami K, Miyamoto D, Jwa Hidari KI, Ito T, Kida H, Kiso M, Fukunaga K, Ohuchi M, Toyoda T, Ishihama A, Kawaoka Y, Suzuki Y. Substitution of amino acid residue in influenza A virus hemagglutinin affects recognition of sialyl-oligosaccharides contai
  35. Roberts A, Kretzschmar E, Perkins AS, Forman J, Price R, Buonocore L, Kawaoka Y, Rose JK. Vaccination with a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing an influenza virus hemagglutinin provides complete protection from influenza virus challenge. J Virol 72: 4704-4711, 1998.
  36. Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Ishikawa H, Vines A, Asai T, Kida H. Continued circulation of reassortant H1N2 influenza viruses in pigs in Japan. Arch Virol 143: 1773-1782, 1998.
  37. Kawaoka Y, Gorman OT, Ito T, Wells KR, Donis RO, Castrucci MR, Donatelli I, Webster RG. Influence of host species on the evolution of the nonstructural (NS) gene of influenza A viruses. Virus Res 55:143-56, 1998.
  38. Matrosovich M, Gao P, Kawaoka Y. Molecular mechanisms of serum-resistance of human influenza H3H2 virus and their involvement in virus adaptation in a new host. J Virol 72:6373-80, 1998.
  39. Vines A, Wells K, Matrosovich M, Castrucci MR, Ito T, Kawaoka Y. The role of residues 226 and 228 of influenza A virus hemagglutinin in receptor specificity and host range restriction. J Virol 72:7626-31, 1998.
  40. Ito T, Couceiro JNSS, Kelm S, Baum LG, Krauss S, Castrucci MR,Donatelli I, Kida H, Paulson JC, Webster RG, Kawaoka Y. Molecular basis for the generation in pigs of influenza A viruses with pandemic potential. J Virol72:7367-73, 1998.
  41. Goto H, Kawaoka Y. A novel mechanism for the acquisition of virulence by a human influenza A virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:10224-10228, 1998.
  42. Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. A possible mechanism for selection of virulent avian influenza A viruses in 14-day-old embryonated eggs. J Vet Med Sci 60: 273-275, 1998.
  43. Ryan-Poirier K, Suzuki Y, Bean WJ, Kobasa D, Takada A, Ito T, Kawaoka Y. Changes in H3 influenza A virus receptor specificity during replication in humans. Virus Res 56:169-176, 1998
  44. Blaney JE, Nobusawa E, Brehm MA, Bonneau RH, Mylin LM, Fu TM, Kawaoka Y, Tevethia SS. Immunization with a single MHC Class I restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte recognition epitope of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) confers protective immunity. J Virol 72: 9567-9574, 1998.
  45. Shortridge KF, Zhou NN, Guan Y, Gao P, Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Kodihalli S, Krauss S, Markwell D, Murti KG, Norwood M, Senne D, Sims L, Takada A, Webster RG. Characterization of Avian H5N1 Influenza Viruses from Poultry in Hong Kong. Virology 252:331-342, 1998.
  46. Ito T, Suzuki Y, Takada A, Kawamoto A, Otsuki K, Masuda H, Yamada M, Suzuki T, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Differences in sialic acid - galactose linkages in the amnion and allantois of chicken eggs influence human influenza virus receptor specificity and variant selection. J Virol 71:3357-3362,1997.
  47. Suzuki T, Horiike G, Yamazaki Y, Kawabe K, Masuda H, Miyamoto D, Matsuda M, Nishimura S, Yamagata T, Ito T, Kida H, Kawaoka Y, Suzuki Y. Swine influenza virus strains recognize sialysugar chains containing the molecular species of sialic acid predominantly present in swine tracheal epithel
  48. Campitelli, L, Donatelli, Foni E, Castrucci MR, Fabiani C, Kawaoka Y, Krauss S, Webster RG. Continued evolution of H1N1 and H3N2 influenza viruses in Pigs in Italy. Virology 232: 310-318, 1997.
  49. Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. Biologic effects of introducing additional basic amino acid residues into the hemagglutinin. Virus Res 50:35-40, 1997.
  50. Sharp GB, Kawaoka Y, Jones DJ, Bean WJ, Pryor SP, Hinshaw V, Webster RG. Coinfection of wild ducks by influenza viruses: distribution patterns and biological significance. J Virol 71: 6128-6135, 1997.
  51. Kobasa D, Rodgers E, Wells K, Kawaoka Y. Neuraminidase hemadsorption activity, conserved in avian influenza A viruses, does not influence viral replication in ducks. J Virol 71: 6706-6713, 1997.
  52. Castrucci MR, Hughes M, Calzoletti L, Donatelli I, Wells K, Takada A, Kawaoka Y. The cysteine residues of the M2 protein are not required for influenza A virus replication. Virology 238: 128-134, 1997.
  53. Goto H, Bethell RC, Kawaoka Y. Mutations affecting the sensitivity of the influenza virus neuraminidase to 4-guanidino-2,4-dideoxy-2,3-dehydro-n-acetylneuraminic acid. Virology 238:165-272, 1997.
  54. Neumann G, Castrucci MR, Kawaoka Y. Nuclear import and export of influenza virus nucleoprotein. J Virol 71, 9690-9700, 1997.
  55. Walker WS, Castrucci MR, Sangster MY, Carson RT, Kawaoka Y. HEL-Flu: An influenza virus containing the hen egg lysozyme epitope recognized by CD4+ T cell from mice transgenic for TCR. J Immunol. 159:2563-2566, 1997.
  56. Takada A, Robison C, Goto H, Sanchez A, Murti KG, Whitt MA, Kawaoka Y. A novel system for functional analysis of Ebola virus glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:14764-14769, 1997.
  57. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Reverse genetics of influenza virus. Virology 287(2):243-250, 2001.
  58. Suzuki Y, Ito T, Suzuki T, Miyamoto D, Kazuya I.-P. J. Hidari, Guo C.-T, Kida H, Webster R.G, Chambers T.M, Kawaoka Y. Sialyl sugar chains as receptors and determinants of host range of influenza A viruses. In: Options for the control of influenza IV (in press).
  59. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Genetic approach to studying influenza pathogenesis. In: Options for the control of influenza IV (in press).
  60. Watanabe T, Watanabe S, Neumann G, Kida H, Kawaoka Y.An efficient plasmid-driven system for the generation of influenza virus-like particles for vaccine. In: Options for the control of influenza IV (in press).
  61. Hatta M, Halfmann P, Wells K, Kawaoka Y. Host range restriction of influenza A virus replication in duck intestine. In: Options for the control of influenza IV (in press).
  62. Horimoto T, Kawaoka Y. Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza viruses. Clin Microbiol Rev. Jan;14(1):129-149. 2001
  63. Goto H, Kawaoka Y. Assays for functional binding of plasminogen to viral proteins. Methods 2000 ;21:159-63
  64. Shortridge KF, Gao P, Guan Y, Ito T, Kawaoka Y, Markwell D, Takada A, Webster RG Interspecies transmission of influenza viruses: H5N1 virus and a hong kong SAR perspective. Vet Microbiol 2000 74:141-7
  65. Neumann G, Kawaoka Y. Genetic engineering of influenza and other negative strand RNA viruses containing segmented genomes, Adv Virus Res, 2000.
  66. Ito T, Kawaoka Y. Host range barrier of influenza A viruses, Vet Microbiol, 2000.
  67. Kawaoka Y. Influenza viruses, Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Macmillan, 2000.
  68. Kawaoka Y. Influenza epidemics in humans, Encyclopedia of Life Sciences, Macmillan , 2000.
  69. Nichol ST, Arikawa J, Kawaoka Y. Emerging viral diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 97:12411-2, 2000.
  70. Kawaoka Y. Filoviruses: closing the gap on a killer, Trends Microbiol 7:260-261, 1999.
  71. Takada A, Kawaoka Y. Pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection: recent insights. Trends Microbiol 6: 258-259, 1998.
  72. Ito, T, Kawaoka Y. Avian influenza. In: Textbook of Influenza., Nicholson, Webster and Hay, eds., Blackwell, London, pp126-136, 1998.
  73. Takada A, Kawaoka Y. Pathogenesis of Ebola Virus Infection: Recent Insights, Trends Microbiol 6:258-9, 1998.
  74. Bilsel P, Kawaoka Y. New approaches to vaccination. In: Textbook of Influenza., Nicholson, Webster and Hay, eds., Blackwell, London, pp422-434, 1998.
  75. Webster RG, Shortridge KF, KawaokaY. Influenza: interspecies trasmission and emergence of new pandemics, FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 18: 275-279, 1997.
  76. Kawaoka Y, Takada A, Whitt A. Use of a Mutant VSV for Analysis of Viral Proteins, In Frontiers in Virology, Nagai Y, ed., Yodosha, Japan pp141-145, 1997 (in Japanese).
  77. Kawaoka Y. Dynamics of Influenza Pathogenesis, Tsubokura M, ed., Yokendo, Japan pp137-144, 1997 (in Japanese).
  78. Cox NJ, Kawaoka Y. Orthomyxoviruses: Influenza. In: Topley & Wilson's Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 9th ed., Collier L, Balows A., Sussman M., eds., Edward Arnold, London Vol.1 pp385-433, 1997.